Stem cells

they are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues.

There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans:

  1. Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest).

  2. Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction.

  3. Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor.

Treatments

Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is being investigated include:

  • Diabetes

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Parkinson’s disease

  • Alzheimer’s disease

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Stroke and traumatic brain injury repair

  • Learning disability due to congenital disorder

  • Spinal cord injury repair

  • Heart infarction

  • Anti-cancer treatments

  • Baldness reversal

  • Replace missing teeth

  • Repair hearing

  • Restore vision

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  • Crohn’s disease

  • Wound healing

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is a crude form of stem cell therapy that has been used clinically for many years without controversy. No stem cell therapies other than bone marrow transplant are widely used