Diabetes often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).

Diabetes Cause and Signs 

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that results from various factors which include lack of physical activity, overweight, obesity, chronic stress, lifestyle habits which include smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy food habits, underlying diseases or sometimes genetic factors and hereditary. Sometimes the insulin which is released from pancreas become resistant to breakdown carbohydrates and convert it into glucose which is also a factor that causes diabetes.
Symptoms and signs which shows that the person is suffering from diabetes include – Increased thirst frequent urination, increased hunger, fatigue, blurred vision, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands, infection that does not heal, sores, and weight loss.

Symptoms of Diabetes:

some of the symptoms that indicate the person is suffering from diabetes include Polydipsia, polyuria or urination, weight loss, fatigue, or blurred vision, easy infections.
Other types of diabetic conditions include.

  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Increased hunger
  • Weight loss
  • Tiredness
  • Lack of interest and concentration
  • A tingling sensation or numbness in the hands or feet
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent infections

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) glycosuria, hyperlipaemia, negative nitrogen balance and sometimes ketonaemia. Diabetes can cause life threatening effects if the sugar levels are not maintained properly. The disease can cause a widespread pathological changes like increase in the vessel wall matrix, vascular complications like lumen narrowing, early atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and peripheral vascular insufficiency.

Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high levels of blood glucose into the blood. It is very important to control the levels of the blood in order to treat diabetes.  If the disease is left un-treated, it can lead to various other life threatening complications that may include Diabetic Ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic foot. Therefore it is essential that blood sugar levels to be maintained by following proper diet, and some oral medication or taking insulin is the main treatment. Regular screening for diabetic complications is also required.

The Treatments for different types of Diabetes include

1.) Type -1 – Also called as Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
2.) Type-2 – Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

TYPE-1 Diabetes:

Type -1 diabetes is an insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, which is also called as juvenile onset diabetes mellitus which is known to be genetic and is found to be present since birth.The treatment conditions of Type -I Diabetes include maintaining normal blood sugar by daily screening, taking sub-cutaneous insulin, consulting a dietician or nutritionist for a diabetic diet in order to control the sugar levels in blood, self- caring which include count on carbohydrate intake and physical exercise.
Type- I diabetes mellitus is characterized by the destruction of beta cells present in the pancreatic islets which is due to the autoimmune antibodies destroying the cells. Beta cells present in the pancreas are known to produce insulin which breaks down the carbohydrates, protein, fats consumed as food into glucose and provides energy to the body. In all type -1 diabetic patients the levels of insulin levels are found to be low or very low, which makes patient more prone to ketosis. However type-1 diabetes is less common and is found to be a genetic pre-disposition.

The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years. Type 1 diabetes is nowhere near as common as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet.
Between 2001 and 2009, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes among the under 20s in the USA rose 23%, according to search for Diabetes in Youth data issued by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

TYPE-2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus also known as maturity onset diabetes mellitus, in this type of diabetes there is no reduction of the beta cell mass. However, the circulation levels of insulin is low, normal or even high. This type is highly seen past middle stage due to its high degree of genetic pre-disposition and late onset. Over 90% of cases are type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes can be caused due to abnormality in the glucose receptors of beta cells where the cells respond to higher glucose concentration or relative beta cell deficiency. Reduced sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, reduction in the number of insulin receptors, excess of hyperglycaemic hormones like glucagon, obesity, and insulin deficiency. It is a non-insulin dependent diabetes and can be treated through anti-diabetic drugs like Meglitinides, sulfonylureas, metformin and other drugs. Also maintaining a proper diet after consulting a doctor, exercising on daily basis in-order to lose weight, medication and insulin therapy.

The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance). Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.
Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels. However, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease – it gradually gets worse – and the patient will probably end up have to take insulin, usually in tablet form.

Gestational Diabetes:

This type of diabetes normally occur in pregnant women, who were previously not shown any signs of diabetes. However, women prone to gestational diabetes give birth to healthy babies with proper consultation and maintaining the sugar levels properly throughout the pregnancy. Those who develop gestational diabetes are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes in its early stages do not show any symptoms, but it is advised to take a blood sugar test during pregnancy for diagnosis.
Gestational diabetes can be treated by monitoring the sugar levels daily, maintaining a healthy diet, doing some exercises and monitoring the baby. This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy. The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. Between 10% to 20% of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose-controlling medications. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. The baby may be bigger than he/she should be.
Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University found that women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats.

Pre-Diabetes:

Prediabetes is a condition prior to developing type 2 diabetes. The levels of blood sugar are in lower range when compared to the sugar levels present in type 2 diabetic patients. Pre-diabetic condition is warning sign to type 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes is a mark that progresses towards type-II diabetes, and the person who is diagnosed with pre-diabetes can exercise to lose weight, change their lifestyle habits, and maintain a proper diet in order to control the type-2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes include treatments like proper monitoring of blood glucose levels and consulting doctor, doing some exercise and maintaining healthy diet.