cardiac and heart surgery

 

Heart Diseases Treatments in India

Heart is a hard muscular organ that provides the body the ability to function by pumping nutrient and oxygen rich blood through all the organs. It also assists in removal of metabolic wastes from the body. Heart transplant is a surgery performed on the human heart where the diseased or malfunctioned heart is replaced with a new healthy functioning heart. Heart transplant is the end stage procedure, which is performed on patients where all the treatment has been failed and only left with a solution of heart transplantation.

Factors that lead to heart transplantation

There are various factors that can lead to cause heart transplantation, some of them are mentioned below
Congenital heart disease – This disease refers to the abnormal structure of the heart which can be seen during the birth. The abnormality can be in the walls of the heart, valves, and blood vessels.
Arrhythmia’s – It is characterized by abnormal heart rhythm where the heart beats can be too fast irregular, or too slow which can hinder regular flow of blood.
Pulmonary hypertension – It is increased blood pressure in the heart commonly due to narrowing of arterioles.
Cardiomyopathy – In this condition the heart is unable to pump the blood with force due to hardening of heart muscle, which can cause heart failure.
Heart valve disease – Heart valves help keep the blood flowing in correct direction by opening and closing during each beat.

Various stages of heart failure

Heart failure is a condition where the heart stop functioning normally and sufficient blood is not pumped into the body. All the conditions mentioned above can cause heart failure. Heart failure is classified into four stages stage A, B, C and D which is categorized from high risk to advanced risk of heart failure. Various stages are discussed below

Stage A – This stage also refers to the pre-mature heart failure where, where a person is suffering from conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, coronary artery disease, damaged heart muscle and etc. The stage A heart failure can be treated by regular exercise, avoiding, alcohol and by the use of some medications like ACE inhibitors, beta blockers.

Stage B –This is a condition of pre-heart failure where it can be diagnosed by looking on the echo-cardiogram that shows less ejection fraction. This is possibly due to left ventricular dysfunction. This can be treated be the use of certain medications that involve ACE inhibitors, Beta blockers, aldosterone antagonists.

Stage C – This is a condition where the people suffer or suffered from heart failure, it is characterized by shortness of breath, fatigue, pain in legs and weakness, swollen feet, ankles and lower legs. Treatment of stage C heart failure involve Hydralazine/nitrate combination, less intake of salt, caffeine, ICD therapy,  ACE inhibitors, Diuretics, Pacemaker.

Stage D – this is the final stage of Heart failure where the patient shows advanced increase and worsening of the disease which can only be treated by transplanting the heart, Ventricular assist devices, Heart surgery, Continuous infusion of intravenous isotropic drugs.

Cardiac surgery

Cardiac surgery or cardiovascular surgery is a type of surgery performed on the heart present in the thoracic cavity.  Cardiac surgery is performed to repair the wounds, and conducted by highly experienced surgeons. The introduction of the open heart surgery and other surgical treatment for congenital and acquired heart diseases have controlled many problems related to heart. It is a common surgical procedure conducted to create an alternative path to deliver blood supply to the heart and body, with a target to prevent blood clot.

Open heart surgery is a type of surgery performed on the heart muscles, valves or arteries. People suffering from coronary heart disease are opted for CABG (coronary artery bypass graft). Also various conditions like damaged muscles in the heart, valves, abnormal heart beat, or implantation of any medical device can lead to CABG. Some of the risks associated with the cardiac surgery can involve stroke, blood loss, blood clot, pneumonia, infection, lung or kidney failure, fever and memory loss. Post- surgery precautions need to be taken and the patient is generally kept in the ICU for one day, to monitor the patient and also to avoid any complications and observe the incision with care in-order to minimize scarring, swelling, and infection. Apart from these heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen levels are to be monitored continuously.

Best cardiologist in India

Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. And a person dealing with these disorders is known as cardiologist. Best cardiologist is assessed on education, experience and handling of cases. Alkabir health care services provide help from medical experts to select the right cardiology doctors in Delhi NCR. Below are some of the doctors that can be approached for heart treatment.

It is a general term that means that the heart is not working normally. Babies can be born with heart disease. This is called congenital heart disease. If people get heart disease later, it is called acquired heart disease. Most heart disease is acquired. Heart disease is the biggest killer of both men and women in the United States, England, Wales and Canada. For example, heart disease causes 4 out of every 10 deaths in the United States, this is more than all kinds of cancer put together. Also, one person dies of heart disease about every minute in the United States alone.

Types of Heart Disease :

The three most common types of acquired heart disease are :

  1. Coronary Artery Disease (acronym CAD) – This is a sympton with the blood vessels that deliver blood to the heart muscle. If these blood vessels get very small, or if they become blocked, blood cannot flow through them normally. Since less blood is supplied to the heart muscle the muscle cannot work at normal capacity. The heart muscle can become sick and weak. Heart muscle can even die if blood flow stops.
  2. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) This is a condition that means that the heart is not pumping at normal levels. Two common causes are a weak or sick heart muscle and the other is abnormal heart valves. The valves may not let enough blood through because they are too narrowed. Or the valve may “leak” and let blood flow backwards (the wrong direction) inside the heart. When the heart valves do not work normally, the heart muscle has to do extra work and it can become tired or fatigued.
  3. Bad Heart Rhythms This is a problem with electrical activity in the heart. This can make the heart beat too fast or too slow. Very bad heart rhythms may make the heart stop pumping blood. The heart needs a normal rhythm to pump the blood well. If the rhythm is too fast the heart may not have time for blood to enter the chambers,so there is not enough blood moving through the heart with each beat. If the heart is too slow there may not be enough contractions of the heart to supply the body with the blood that it needs.

There are various types of heart diseases that can cause life threatening effect on human body. Some of the heart diseases are characterized below:

Arrhythmia Arrhythmia is characterized by irregular heartbeats, where the heart pounds either very fast or slow, which can be termed as tachycardia or bradycardia, also premature ventricular contractions, characterized by additional, abnormal beats, fibrillation, where also the heartbeat is irregular.

Coronary aortic disease This is a type of heart disease where the blood flow towards the arteries is impaired whose function is to supply blood to the heart that again pumps the blood into whole body.

Congenital heart disease This occurs mainly at the time of birth where the heart carries some deformities. The deformities may include valve defects/ septal defects, obstruction defects, cyanotic heart disease.

Dilated cardiomyopathy It is a result of weak heart muscles which causes improper pumping of blood into the body organs.

Myocardial infarction This is also called as Heart attack, where there is an interrupted blood towards the heart that damages a part of the heart muscle. This is usually caused by a presence of blood clot or thrombosis.

Heart failure This occurs when the heart stops functioning, and does not pump enough blood around the body

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy This is a condition where the ventricles wall in the heart thickens, making the heart difficult to pump the blood out of it. This is a genetic disorder.

Mitral regurgitation Mitral valve in the heart functions as doors for in and out of blood into the heart, and Mitral regurgitation occurs when the mitral valve does not close tightly enough.

Pulmonary stenosis Pulmonary stenosis is a condition where the valve pulmonary valve becomes too tight, and hard, that it makes it difficult for the heart to pump out the blood.

Heart Catheterization

Cardiac catheterization is a procedure done on heart where a small, thin hollow tube is inserted into the walls, or large blood vessels, cardiac chambers and valves both for the diagnostic and interventional purposes. This procedure can be used to perform a number of procedures which include coronary angioplasty, balloon septosomy, catheter ablation and many others to find out or diagnose if someone is carrying any disease related to heart muscle, valves, arteries or chambers. It can also be used to determine the pressure and blood flow in your heart. There are two types of catheterization: left heart catheterization and right heart catheterization.

Heart Blockage 

Heart block is a condition where the normal beats of the heart which is also called heart rhythm is impaired, this occurs due to a fault in the naturally occurring pacemaker. The main reason behind the heart block is disruption in the electrical conduction of the heart muscles that provides the capability to contract and relax.  Heart block can be partial or complete. Partial heart block is happens when the electrical impulses in the heart get delayed or stopped, which ultimately causes irregular heart beat and lead to heart block. Whereas, a complete heart block occurs when the electrical signals going through the heart stops completely leading to a drop of about 40 times per minute of heartbeat.

Congenital Heart Disease refers to a form of heart problem that starts before birth (congenital). Congenital heart disease includes a large number of conditions. The formation of the heart before birth is a very complex and is sometimes abnormal.